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Magnetron sputtering (磁控濺射台))

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如何提高磁控濺射台的濺射效率?How to improve sputtering efficiency of magnetron sputtering table?

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如何提高磁控濺射台的濺射效率?How to improve sputtering efficiency of magnetron sputtering table?

發布日期:2018-01-04 作者:www.tonertimes.com 點擊:

磁控濺射台通常的濺射方法,濺射效率不高。為了提高濺射效率,首先需要增加氣體的離化效率。為了說明這一點,先討論一下濺射過程。當經過加速的入射離子轟擊靶材(陰極)表麵時,會引起電子發射,在陰極表麵產生的這些電子,開始向陽極加速後進人負輝光區,並與中性的氣體原子碰撞,產生自持的輝光放電所需的離子。這些所謂初始電子(primary electrons )的平均自由程隨電子能量的增大而增大,但隨氣壓的增大而減小。在低氣壓下,離子是在遠離陰極的地方產生,從而它們的熱壁損失較大,同時,有很多初始電子可以以較大的能量碰撞陽極,所引起的損失又不能被碰撞引起 的次級發射電子抵消,這時離化效率很低,以至於不能達到自持的輝光放電所需的離子。通過增大加速電壓的方法也同時增加了電子的平均自由程,從而也不能有效地增加離化效率。雖然增加氣壓可以提高離化率,但在較高的氣壓下,濺射出的粒子與氣體的碰撞的機會也增大,實際的濺射率也很難有大的提高。如果加上一平行於陰極表麵的磁場,就可以將初始電子的運動限製在鄰近陰極的區域,從而增加氣體原子的離化效率。

磁控濺射台

常用磁控濺射儀主要使用圓筒結構和平麵結構,這兩種結構中,磁場方向都基本平行於陰極表麵,並將電子運動有效地限製在陰極附近。磁控濺射的製備條件通常是,加速電壓:300~800V,磁場約:50~300G,氣壓:1 ~10 mTorr,電流密度:4~60mA/cm ,功率密度:1~40W/cm ,對於不同的材料Z大沉積速率範圍從100nm/min到1000nm/min。同濺射一樣,磁控濺射也分為直流(DC)磁控濺射和射頻(RF)磁控濺射。射頻磁控濺射中,射頻電源的頻率通常在50~30MHz。射頻磁控濺射相對於直流磁控濺射的主要優點是,它不要求作為電極的靶材是導電的。因此,理論上利用射頻磁控濺射可以濺射沉積任何材料。由於磁性材料對磁場的屏蔽作用,濺射沉積時它們會減弱或改變靶表麵的磁場分布,影響濺射效率。因此,磁性材料的靶材需要特別加工成薄片,盡量減少對磁場的影響。

      The sputtering efficiency of magnetron sputtering table is not high. In order to improve the sputtering efficiency, the first step is to increase the gas ionization efficiency. In order to illustrate this point, the sputtering process is discussed first. When the accelerated incident ion bombards the target (cathode) surface, it will cause electron emission. These electrons generated on the cathode surface start to accelerate towards the anode and enter the negative glow region, and collide with the neutral gas atoms to generate the ions needed for self-sustaining glow discharge. The mean free path of these so-called primary electrons increases with the increase of electron energy, but decreases with the increase of air pressure. At low pressure, ions are generated far away from the cathode, so their hot wall loss is large. At the same time, many initial electrons can collide with the anode with a large amount of energy, and the loss can not be offset by the secondary emission electrons caused by collision. At this time, the ionization efficiency is very low, so that the ions required for self-sustaining glow discharge cannot be achieved. By increasing the accelerating voltage, the mean free path of the electron is also increased, so the ionization efficiency cannot be increased effectively. Although the ionization rate can be increased by increasing the air pressure, the chance of collision between the splashed particles and the gas is also increased at a higher air pressure, and the actual sputtering rate is also difficult to be greatly improved. If a magnetic field parallel to the cathode surface is added, the motion of the initial electron can be limited to the region adjacent to the cathode, thus increasing the ionization efficiency of the gas atom. 

      The commonly used magnetron sputtering instrument mainly uses cylinder structure and plane structure. In these two structures, the magnetic field direction is basically parallel to the cathode surface, and the electron movement is effectively limited near the cathode. The preparation conditions of magnetron sputtering are: acceleration voltage: 300-800v, magnetic field: about 50-300g, air pressure: 1-10mtorr, current density: 4-60ma / cm, power density: 1-40w / cm, and the maximum deposition rate range for different materials is from 100nm / min to 1000nm / min. Like sputtering, magnetron sputtering can be divided into DC magnetron sputtering and RF magnetron sputtering. In RF magnetron sputtering, the frequency of RF power supply is usually 50-30mhz. The main advantage of RF magnetron sputtering over DC magnetron sputtering is that it does not need to be conductive as the target of electrode. Therefore, theoretically, any material can be deposited by RF magnetron sputtering. Due to the shielding effect of magnetic materials on the magnetic field, they will weaken or change the magnetic field distribution on the target surface and affect the sputtering efficiency. Therefore, the target materials of magnetic materials need to be specially processed into thin sheets to minimize the impact on the magnetic field.

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相關標簽:磁控濺射台

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