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等離子刻蝕機通常有幾種形式?How many kinds of plasma etchers are there?

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等離子刻蝕機通常有幾種形式?How many kinds of plasma etchers are there?

發布日期:2018-02-01 作者:www.tonertimes.com 點擊:


等離子刻蝕機通常有三種形式:等離子體刻蝕、離子轟擊和兩種形式的結合反應離子刻蝕(Reactive Ion Etching),下表給出三種刻蝕的特點對照。

離子轟擊顧名思義是利用高能量惰性氣體離子轟擊矽片表麵,達到濺射刻蝕的作用。因為采用這種方法所以可以得到非常小的特征尺寸和垂直的側壁形貌。這是一種“通用"的刻蝕方式,可以在任何材料上形成圖形,如鈦、金等,可惜離子轟擊有其致命弱點:刻蝕速率低下同時選擇性比較差,能達到3:1以屬罕見。

等離子體刻蝕的優勢不僅在於快速的刻蝕速率同時可獲得良好的物理形貌,還可以通過對反應氣體的選擇達到針對光刻膠和襯底的高選擇比。但是因為整個過程完全是化學反應所以對材料的刻蝕是各向同性的,隨著工藝尺寸的持續縮小,這一缺點愈顯突出,使它的應用越來越越受到限製,一般僅用於對特征形貌沒有要求的去膠(Ashing)工藝。

反應離子刻蝕是上述兩種刻蝕方法相結合的產物,它是利用有化學反應性氣體產生具有化學活性的基團和離子。經過電場加速的高能離子轟擊被刻蝕材料,產生損傷的表麵,這進一步加速了活性刻蝕反應基團與被刻蝕材料的反應速率,正是這種化學和物理反應的相互促進使得反應離子刻蝕具有上述兩種幹法刻蝕所沒有的優越性:良好的形貌控製能力(各向異性);較高的選擇比;可以接受的刻速率。正是它的這些優越性使得它成為目前應用範圍Z為廣泛的幹法刻蝕,所以現在91xjcc下载ioses提到的幹法刻蝕一般都是指反應離子刻蝕。

等離子刻蝕機

當刻蝕氣體被通入刻蝕反應腔中,在射頻電場的作用下產生等離子體輝光放電,反應氣體分解成各種中性的化學活性基團,分子、電子、離子;由於電子和離子的質量不同使得質量較輕的電子能夠響應射頻電場的變化而離子卻不能,正是這種差異在電極上產生負偏壓 Vdc(Negative DC bias) ,離子在負偏壓的加速下轟擊矽片表麵形成反應離子刻蝕;一個持續的幹法刻蝕必須要滿足這些條件:在反應腔內有源源不斷的自由基團;矽片必須靠等離子體足夠近以便反應基團可以擴散到其表麵;反應物應被矽片表麵吸附以持續化學反應;揮發性的生成物應可從矽片表麵解吸附並被抽出反應腔。上麵的任一種條件末達到刻蝕過程都會中斷。

      There are generally three forms of plasma etching: plasma etching, ion bombardment and two forms of combined reactive ion etching. The following table shows the characteristics of three kinds of etching. 

      As the name implies, ion bombardment is to bombard the surface of silicon wafer with high-energy inert gas ions to achieve the effect of sputtering and etching. Because of this method, very small feature size and vertical side wall morphology can be obtained. This is a "universal" etching method, which can form patterns on any material, such as titanium, gold, etc. unfortunately, ion bombardment has its fatal weakness: low etching rate and poor selectivity, which can reach 3:1 is rare. 

    The advantages of plasma etching are not only the fast etching rate and good physical morphology, but also the high selection ratio for photoresist and substrate through the selection of reactive gas. But because the whole process is completely chemical reaction, the etching of the material is isotropic. With the continuous reduction of the process size, this disadvantage becomes more and more prominent, which makes its application more and more limited. Generally, it is only used in the ashing process which does not require the characteristic morphology.

  Reactive ion etching is the product of the combination of the above two etching methods. It uses chemically reactive gases to produce chemically active groups and ions. The high energy ions accelerated by electric field bombard the etched material and produce the damaged surface, which further accelerates the reaction rate between the reactive etching reaction group and the etched material. It is the mutual promotion of chemical and physical reactions that makes the reactive ion etching have the advantages that the above two dry etching methods do not have: good morphology control ability (anisotropy); high selection The acceptable rate of engraving. Because of its advantages, it has become the most widely used dry etching at present, so the dry etching we mentioned now generally refers to reactive ion etching. 

  When the etching gas is introduced into the etching reaction chamber, a plasma glow discharge is generated under the action of RF electric field, and the reaction gas is decomposed into various neutral chemical active groups, molecules, electrons and ions; because of the different mass of electrons and ions, the lighter electrons can respond to the change of RF electric field, while the ions cannot, which is the difference that produces negative bias on the electrode Voltage VDC (negative DC bias) Under the acceleration of negative bias voltage, ions bombard the surface of silicon wafer to form reactive ion etching; a continuous dry etching must meet these conditions: there are continuous free groups in the reaction chamber; silicon wafer must be close enough to the plasma so that the reactive groups can diffuse to its surface; reactants should be adsorbed on the surface of silicon wafer for continuous chemical reaction; volatile products should be able to Desorption from the wafer surface and extraction of the reaction chamber. Any of the above conditions will interrupt the etching process.

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