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Chinese plasma etching machine has reached the advanced level in the world中國等離子體刻蝕機達到世界先進水平

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Chinese plasma etching machine has reached the advanced level in the world中國等離子體刻蝕機達到世界先進水平

發布日期:2018-03-24 作者:www.tonertimes.com 點擊:

日前,央視財經頻道播出的《感受中國製造》第五集《中國“芯”力量》介紹了中國在半導體設備和半導體原材料上取得的成績和進步。其中,Z引人矚目的莫過於中國企業在刻蝕機上取得的成績——16nm刻蝕機實現商業化量產並在客戶的生產線上運行,7-10nm刻蝕機設備可以與世界Z前沿技術比肩。

相對於中國在光刻機上與ASML的巨大差距,在刻蝕機上國內企業不僅可以滿足本國企業的需求,還能夠進入國際市場上與應用材料、科林等國際巨頭一爭長短。而這背後,是一群科技人才放棄美國優越的待遇選擇回國,並耗費十多年時間持之以恒的付出和努力換來的成績。

半導體設備和原材料是Z大短板

半導體產業大體上可以分為IC設計、半導體設備製造、原材料、代工生產、封裝測試幾個部分。其中,封裝測試是目前發展勢頭Z好的部分,國內封測廠商的領頭羊長電科技在大基金等國內資本的扶持下收購新加坡星科金朋後,一舉躋身全球封測廠商前5位,並有望在5年內趕超或接近中國台灣的日月光等封測大廠。

雖然封測和境外廠商差距較小,晶圓代工和IC設計就相對來說弱一些。就晶圓代工而言,國內有中芯國際和華力微等一批代工企業,而且發展勢頭也非常好,中芯國際也是全球前5的代工廠商,但在市場份額上,中芯國際隻有台積電的十分之一左右,在技術上也有2代的差距,與台積電、Intel的差距非常明顯。

等離子刻蝕機

在IC設計上,論商業化而言,海思和展訊的銷售額位列Fabless廠商前10位,但能夠取得這個成績很大程度得益於ARM的技術授權。就自主性來說,國內也有申威和龍芯,申威26010被用於神威太湖之光超級計算機,在TOP500刷榜,龍芯多種芯片分別被用於北鬥衛星、數控機床、特種裝備、網安產品和PC、服務器,不過龍芯和申威目前在民用市場很難與X86、ARM抗衡。

相比較之下,原材料和半導體設備就更弱一些。雖然在PECVD、氧化爐等設備上國內已經取得技術突破並且開始進入產業化應用階段,但在很多方麵,與國外廠商的差距非常大,有的甚至完全依賴進口。

就以生產芯片所有的晶圓(矽片)來說,目前市場上在使用的矽片有 6 英寸、 8 英寸、12 英寸晶圓,而晶圓尺寸越大就可以切出更多晶片,進而降低成本,除少數特殊領域外,采用大尺寸晶圓已經是大勢所趨。

然而,就是這樣一款生產芯片的原材料,國內每月需要的12英寸晶圓不少於45萬片,但這些晶圓完全依賴進口,日本越新、SUMCO、Siltronic、MEMC/SunEdison占據了超過80%以上的市場份額。即便是 8 英寸晶圓,國產化率也僅為10%。


還有很多原材料也被國外壟斷。比如光刻膠,光刻膠由感光樹脂、光引發劑、添加劑、溶劑等組成,在光刻這個步驟中使用,能夠將掩膜板上的圖形轉移到晶圓表麵頂層的光刻膠中。目前,半導體光刻膠市場也基本被JSR、信越化學、 TOK、陶氏化學等國際巨頭壟斷。


在半導體設備方麵,ASML占據了超過70%的高端光刻機市場,而且Z新的產品售價高達1億美元,依舊供不應求,訂單已經排到了2018年。在離子注入機上,美國應用材料占據70%市場份額,在塗膠顯影機方麵,東京電子占據90%的市場份額。就銷售額來看,應用材料(美國)、科林(美國)、ASML(荷蘭)、東京電子、科磊(美國)位列前五,占半導體設備市場份額的66%。

根據估算,2015年至2020年,國內半導體產業計劃投資650億美元,其中設備投資達500億美元。而這500億美元中,有480億美元要用來從國外進口設備,換言之,就總金額來說,2015年至2020年間95%的半導體設備依賴進口。


本次Z讓人振奮的,就是在中國Z薄弱的半導體設備方麵取得了令人欣喜的成績——中微半導體的16nm刻蝕機實現商業化量產並在客戶的生產線上運行,7-10nm刻蝕機設備可以與世界Z前沿技術比肩。

刻蝕機是芯片生產製造的重要設備,不少網友會將光刻機和刻蝕機搞混,有的網友甚至將國內實現16nm刻蝕機量產的新聞誤讀為實現16nm光刻機量產。

其實光刻機和刻蝕機是兩種設備,光刻機的工作原理是用激光將掩膜版上的電路結構臨時複製到矽片上。而刻蝕機是按光刻機刻出的電路結構,在矽片上進行微觀雕刻,刻出溝槽或接觸孔的設備。


等離子刻蝕機對加工精度的要求非常高,加工精度是頭發絲直徑的幾千分之一到上萬分之一。以16nm的CPU來說,等離子體刻蝕的加工尺度為普通人頭發絲的五千分之一,加工的精度和重複性要達到五萬分之一。

國內能夠在取得刻蝕機方麵取得技術突破,和尹誌堯為代表的幾十位海歸技術專家分不開。尹誌堯曾經擔任應用材料的公司副總裁(應用材料是半導體設備廠商龍頭老大),參與領導幾代等離子體刻蝕設備的開發,在美國工作時就持有86項專利。

在13年前,已經60歲的尹誌堯放棄美國優越的物質待遇,回國創業,尹誌堯表示:“給外國人做嫁衣已經做了很多事情了,那91xjcc下载官网應該給自己的祖國和人民做一些貢獻,所以就決心回來了”。

與尹誌堯一同回來的是三十位在應用材料、科林等國際巨頭有著20—30年半導體設備研發製造的經驗的資深工程師。在回國之際,所有技術專家承諾不會把美國公司的技術,包括設計圖紙、工藝過程帶回國內,美國方麵也對歸國人員持有的600多萬個文件和所有個人電腦做了徹底清查。

在回國之後,尹誌堯團隊從零開始,重新研發申請了專利,終於在2008年,中微半導體的刻蝕機開始打進國際市場。對於這種情況,國外公司無法接受中國人能在3年內做出高性能刻蝕機,應用材料和科林相繼對中微半導體提起專利訴訟。在中微半導體拿出了關鍵技術的專利證據之後,兩次擴日持久的訴訟都以中微半導體獲勝告終。

隨著中微半導體的崛起,2015年美國商業部的工業安全局特別發布公告,由於認識到中國可以做出具有國際競爭力的,而且有大量生產的等離子刻蝕機,所以決定把等離子刻蝕機從美國對中國控製的單子上去掉了。

此外,在用於生產LED照明芯片的MOCVD設備方麵,中微半導體也取得了技術突破,雖然央視節目中沒有披露該設備的技術參數,但明確表明:“已經達到世界頂尖水平的產品”。而且中微半導體的MOCVD設備還有自己的特色。在此之前,市場設備大多采用400mm的晶圓托盤,中微半導體做出了700mm的晶圓托盤,這等於是在相同的時間裏,使芯片產量增加了一倍。

這款產品成功打敗了國外壟斷,由於設備性能的提高,降低了LED芯片的生產成本,LED照明產品的成本,累計降幅超過50%。目前,這種設備全球一年出貨量約為100—150台,其中的六七十台是由中微提供的。如果不是中微半導體將設備國產化,LED燈的成本不會是現在的水平。

目前,中微半導體的產值已經達到11億人民幣,產品遠銷歐洲、韓國、中國台灣、新加坡等地。


姚力軍曾就職於霍尼韋爾公司,擔任過霍尼韋爾公司電子材料部門日本生產基地總執行官和霍尼韋爾公司電子材料事業部大中華區總裁。 2005年姚力軍帶領多名專家回國創業從事高純度濺射靶材的研發。

高純度濺射靶材是半導體芯片製造中的關鍵材料,製作芯片需要的金屬靶材純度則需要達到更高的99.9999%,目前全球隻有四家公司掌握這種材料的製造工藝。


靶材的生產製造要經過反複多次特點方向的變形,對金屬內部的微觀組織結構進行控製,這種控製決定了靶材的可靠性和穩定性,通過工藝改變了晶體的排列方式,使其適合用來做半導體芯片的方向。

在過去,高純金屬原材料依賴進口,在研發靶材的過程中,姚力軍團隊曾經試圖向美國霍尼韋爾和日本大阪鈦業購買高純鈦金屬,但國外企業根本不賣。這使得姚力軍隻能自己從零開始研發高純鈦金屬和相關生產設備。並Z終實現從工藝到大型設備都是國內自主設計。

比如焊接設備,鈦銅等金屬要經過700度以上高溫和120兆帕壓力進行大麵積焊接,整個過程需要16小時。雖然工藝還叫焊接,但實際上,是讓不同金屬在高溫高壓下,通過接觸麵上的原子擴散實現無縫連接,中間不需要任何焊料,這種焊接的強度可以達到200兆帕,是普通釺焊的10倍以上,隻有這樣的焊接才能使材料更純淨。

以前這種加工必須送到日本去代工,加工一爐要5萬元,現在加工一爐隻要8000元。再比如超高純鈦熔鑄設備,能在1800多攝氏度下提純材料,金屬鈦融化提純後,Z後凝固成鈦錠,在技術上國內已經達到美國和日本的水平。目前,姚力軍的江豐電子已授權的發明專利超過140多項。全球有270家企業采用了姚力軍的高純度濺射靶材。


雖然國內在原材料和半導體設備上和國外的差距非常大,但隨著晶圓代工、封裝測試和IC設計正逐步向東亞乃至中國轉移,以及中國在這方麵不斷加大投入,如果外國政府不從中作梗,半導體設備和原材料向中國轉移隻是時間問題。本次國內企業在局部領域取得的技術突破,就是國內逐步實現半導體設備和原材料國產化替代的一部分,隨著時間的推移,類似的技術突破將會越來越多,並Z終從量變轉化為質變。

       Recently, the fifth episode "China's core power" of "feeling made in China" broadcast by CCTV financial channel introduced China's achievements and progress in semiconductor equipment and semiconductor raw materials. Among them, the most remarkable achievement of Chinese enterprises in the etching machine is that the 16nm etching machine realizes commercial mass production and runs on the customer's production line. The 7-10nm etching machine equipment can be compared with the most advanced technology in the world. 

     Compared with the huge gap between China and ASML in lithography machine, domestic enterprises in lithography machine can not only meet the needs of domestic enterprises, but also enter the international market to compete with application materials, Colin and other international giants. Behind this, a group of scientific and technological talents chose to return home after giving up the superior treatment of the United States, and spent more than ten years of unremitting efforts and efforts in exchange for achievements. 

     Semiconductor equipment and raw materials are the largest short board semiconductor industry, 

      Which can be divided into IC design, semiconductor equipment manufacturing, raw materials, OEM production and packaging test. Among them, the package test is the best part of the development momentum at present. With the support of big fund and other domestic capital, Changdian technology, the leader of the domestic seal test manufacturer, acquired Singapore Star Technology Jinpeng, and then ranked among the top five seal test manufacturers in the world, and is expected to catch up with or close to the sun and moonlight and other seal test manufacturers in Taiwan in 5 years. 

     Although the gap between seal test and foreign manufacturers is small, wafer foundry and IC design are relatively weak. In terms of wafer foundry, there are a number of domestic foundry enterprises such as SMIC international and Huali micro, and the development momentum is also very good. SMIC is also the top five global foundry manufacturers, but in terms of market share, SMIC international is only about one tenth of TSMC, and there is also a gap of two generations in technology, which is very obvious with TSMC and Intel. 

     In terms of IC design, in terms of commercialization, Hisilicon and Spreadtrum are among the top 10 fabless manufacturers in terms of sales, but the achievement is largely due to arm's technical authorization. In terms of autonomy, there are also Shenwei and Longxin in China. Shenwei 26010 is used in Shenwei Taihu light supercomputer. In the top 500, Longxin chips are used in Beidou satellite, CNC machine tools, special equipment, network security products, PC and servers respectively. However, Longxin and Shenwei are difficult to compete with X86 and ARM in the civil market. 

     By comparison, raw materials and semiconductor equipment are weaker. Although technical breakthroughs have been made in PECVD, oxidation furnace and other equipment in China and they have begun to enter the stage of industrial application, in many aspects, the gap with foreign manufacturers is very large, some of them even rely on imports. 

     As for all the wafers (wafers) used to produce chips, there are 6-inch, 8-inch and 12 inch wafers in the market at present. The larger the wafer size is, the more chips can be cut out, and then the cost can be reduced. Except for a few special areas, the adoption of large-size wafers is the general trend. 

     However, the raw materials for such a chip are not less than 450000 pieces of 12 inch wafers needed every month in China, but these wafers are completely dependent on imports. Japan's Yuexin, sumco, sillonic, MEMC / SunEdison account for more than 80% of the market share. Even for 8-inch wafers, the localization rate is only 10%.

       Many raw materials are also monopolized by foreign countries. For example, photoresist, which is composed of photosensitive resin, photoinitiator, additive, solvent, etc., can be used in the photolithography step to transfer the pattern on the mask plate to the photoresist on the top layer of the wafer surface. At present, semiconductor photoresist market is basically monopolized by international giants such as JSR, Xinyue chemical, Tok and Dow Chemical. 

      In terms of semiconductor equipment, ASML accounts for more than 70% of the high-end lithography market, and the latest products sell for up to $100 million, still in short supply, and the order has been scheduled to 2018. In the ion implanter, the United States accounts for 70% of the market share of applied materials, and in the gelatinizer, Tokyo electronics accounts for 90% of the market share. In terms of sales, applied materials (U.S.), Colin (U.S.), ASML (Netherlands), Tokyo electronics and Kelei (U.S.) rank in the top five, accounting for 66% of the market share of semiconductor equipment. 

     According to estimates, from 2015 to 2020, the domestic semiconductor industry plans to invest 65 billion US dollars, including 50 billion US dollars in equipment investment. Of these 50 billion dollars, 48 billion dollars will be used to import equipment from abroad. In other words, in terms of total amount, 95% of semiconductor equipment will be imported between 2015 and 2020. 

     The most exciting thing this time is that we have made gratifying achievements in China's weakest semiconductor equipment - the 16 nm etching machine of medium and micro semiconductors has realized commercial mass production and operated on the production line of customers, and the 7-10 nm etching machine equipment can be compared with the most advanced technology in the world. Etching machine is an important equipment for chip production and manufacturing. 

     Many netizens will confuse the lithography machine with the etching machine. Some netizens even misread the news of realizing the production of 16nm etching machine in China as realizing the production of 16nm lithography machine. 

     In fact, the lithography machine and the etching machine are two kinds of equipment. The working principle of the lithography machine is to use the laser to temporarily copy the circuit structure on the mask onto the silicon wafer. The etching machine is a kind of equipment which carves the micro - groove or contact hole on the silicon wafer according to the circuit structure carved by the lithography machine. 

     The requirements of plasma etching machine for machining accuracy are very high. The machining accuracy is one thousandth to one thousandth of the hair diameter. For a 16nm CPU, the processing scale of plasma etching is 1/5000 of that of ordinary human hair, and the precision and repeatability of processing should reach 1/50000. 

     In China, we can make technological breakthroughs in the field of etching machine, which is inseparable from dozens of overseas technical experts represented by Yin Zhiyao. Yin Zhiyao once served as vice president of Applied Materials (applied materials is the leader of semiconductor equipment manufacturers), participated in the development of several generations of plasma etching equipment, and held 86 patents when he worked in the United States. 

     13 years ago, at the age of 60, Yin Zhiyao gave up the superior material treatment of the United States and returned home to start his own business. Yin Zhiyao said, "we have done a lot to make a wedding dress for foreigners, so we should make some contributions to our motherland and people, so we are determined to come back.". 

    Together with Yin Zhiyao, there are 30 senior engineers who have 20-30 years of experience in semiconductor equipment R & D and manufacturing in applied materials, Kelin and other international giants. At the time of returning to China, all technical experts promised not to bring the technology of American companies, including design drawings and technological processes back to China. The United States also thoroughly checked more than 6 million documents and all personal computers held by returned personnel.

    After returning to China, Yin Zhiyao's team started from scratch and applied for a new patent. Finally, in 2008, the etching machine of meso and micro semiconductors began to enter the international market. In this case, foreign companies cannot accept that the Chinese can make high-performance etching machines within three years, and applied materials and Colin have filed patent lawsuits against China micro semiconductor successively. After the patent evidence of key technologies was presented, the two long-lasting lawsuits ended with the success of the company. 

    With the rise of meso and micro semiconductors, the industrial safety bureau of the U.S. Department of Commerce issued a special announcement in 2015. Recognizing that China can make plasma etchers with international competitiveness and mass production, it decided to remove the plasma etchers from the list controlled by the United States for China.

   In addition, in terms of MOCVD equipment used to produce LED lighting chips, meso and micro semiconductors have also made technological breakthroughs. Although the technical parameters of the equipment are not disclosed in CCTV programs, it is clear that "the products have reached the world's top level". Moreover, the MOCVD equipment of middle and micro semiconductors has its own characteristics. Before that, the market equipment mostly used 400mm wafer tray, and the medium and micro semiconductors made 700mm wafer tray, which is equivalent to doubling the chip output in the same time. 

   This product has successfully defeated the foreign monopoly. Due to the improvement of equipment performance, the production cost of LED chips has been reduced. The cost of LED lighting products has been reduced by more than 50%. At present, the global annual shipment of this equipment is about 100-150 sets, of which 60-70 are provided by China micro. The cost of LED lamp would not be at the current level if it was not for the localization of the equipment by the medium and micro semiconductors.

    At present, the output value of China micro semiconductor has reached 1.1 billion yuan, and its products are exported to Europe, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and other places. 

    Yao Lijun once worked for Honeywell, served as the general executive officer of Japanese production base of Electronic Materials Department of Honeywell and the president of Greater China of Electronic Materials Department of Honeywell. In 2005, Yao Lijun led many experts back to China to start their own business and engage in the research and development of high-purity sputtering targets.

   High purity sputtering target is the key material in semiconductor chip manufacturing, and the purity of metal target required for chip manufacturing needs to reach a higher 99.9999%. At present, only four companies in the world master the manufacturing process of this material.

    The production and manufacturing of the target materials need to go through repeated deformation of the characteristic direction to control the microstructure inside the metal. This control determines the reliability and stability of the target materials. Through the process, the crystal arrangement is changed, making it suitable for the direction of semiconductor chip. 

    In the past, high-purity metal raw materials relied on imports. In the process of developing target materials, Yao Lijun's team tried to buy high-purity titanium from Honeywell in the United States and Osaka titanium industry in Japan, but foreign enterprises did not sell them at all. This makes Yao Lijun can only develop high-purity titanium metal and related production equipment from scratch. And finally realize from the process to large-scale equipment are domestic independent design. 

   For example, the welding equipment, titanium copper and other metals need to go through the high temperature above 700 degrees and 120 MPa pressure for large-area welding, the whole process takes 16 hours. Although the process is also called welding, in fact, it allows different metals to realize seamless connection through atomic diffusion on the contact surface under high temperature and high pressure. There is no need for any solder in the middle. The strength of this kind of welding can reach 200 MPa, which is more than 10 times of that of ordinary brazing. Only such welding can make the material purer.

   In the past, this kind of processing had to be sent to Japan for OEM. It costs 50000 yuan to process a furnace, but now it costs 8000 yuan to process a furnace. For example, the ultra-high purity titanium melting and casting equipment can purify materials at 1800 degrees Celsius. After the metal titanium is melted and purified, it will finally solidify into titanium ingot. Technically, it has reached the level of the United States and Japan. At present, Yao Lijun's Jiangfeng electronics has authorized more than 140 invention patents. Yao Lijun's high-purity sputtering target has been adopted by 270 enterprises around the world. 

   Although the gap between China and foreign countries in raw materials and semiconductor equipment is very large, with the gradual transfer of wafer foundry, packaging testing and IC design to East Asia and even China, and China's increasing investment in this area, if foreign governments do not interfere, it is only a matter of time before semiconductor equipment and raw materials are transferred to China. The technological breakthrough made by domestic enterprises in some fields is that domestic enterprises gradually realize the localization and replacement of semiconductor equipment and raw materials. With the passage of time, similar technological breakthroughs will become more and more, and eventually change from quantitative change to qualitative change.

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