Name: Suzhou cycas Microelectronics Co., Ltd.
Address: 1st floor,B06 building,No.2,Fuxing Road,Zhangjiagang Economic Development Zone,Jiangsu Province 215600PRC
就以生產芯片所有的晶圓（矽片）來說，目前市場上在使用的矽片有 6 英寸、 8 英寸、12 英寸晶圓，而晶圓尺寸越大就可以切出更多晶片，進而降低成本，除少數特殊領域外，采用大尺寸晶圓已經是大勢所趨。
然而，就是這樣一款生產芯片的原材料，國內每月需要的12英寸晶圓不少於45萬片，但這些晶圓完全依賴進口，日本越新、SUMCO、Siltronic、MEMC/SunEdison占據了超過80%以上的市場份額。即便是 8 英寸晶圓，國產化率也僅為10%。
Recently, the fifth episode "China's core power" of "feeling made in China" broadcast by CCTV financial channel introduced China's achievements and progress in semiconductor equipment and semiconductor raw materials. Among them, the most remarkable achievement of Chinese enterprises in the etching machine is that the 16nm etching machine realizes commercial mass production and runs on the customer's production line. The 7-10nm etching machine equipment can be compared with the most advanced technology in the world.
Compared with the huge gap between China and ASML in lithography machine, domestic enterprises in lithography machine can not only meet the needs of domestic enterprises, but also enter the international market to compete with application materials, Colin and other international giants. Behind this, a group of scientific and technological talents chose to return home after giving up the superior treatment of the United States, and spent more than ten years of unremitting efforts and efforts in exchange for achievements.
Semiconductor equipment and raw materials are the largest short board semiconductor industry,
Which can be divided into IC design, semiconductor equipment manufacturing, raw materials, OEM production and packaging test. Among them, the package test is the best part of the development momentum at present. With the support of big fund and other domestic capital, Changdian technology, the leader of the domestic seal test manufacturer, acquired Singapore Star Technology Jinpeng, and then ranked among the top five seal test manufacturers in the world, and is expected to catch up with or close to the sun and moonlight and other seal test manufacturers in Taiwan in 5 years.
Although the gap between seal test and foreign manufacturers is small, wafer foundry and IC design are relatively weak. In terms of wafer foundry, there are a number of domestic foundry enterprises such as SMIC international and Huali micro, and the development momentum is also very good. SMIC is also the top five global foundry manufacturers, but in terms of market share, SMIC international is only about one tenth of TSMC, and there is also a gap of two generations in technology, which is very obvious with TSMC and Intel.
In terms of IC design, in terms of commercialization, Hisilicon and Spreadtrum are among the top 10 fabless manufacturers in terms of sales, but the achievement is largely due to arm's technical authorization. In terms of autonomy, there are also Shenwei and Longxin in China. Shenwei 26010 is used in Shenwei Taihu light supercomputer. In the top 500, Longxin chips are used in Beidou satellite, CNC machine tools, special equipment, network security products, PC and servers respectively. However, Longxin and Shenwei are difficult to compete with X86 and ARM in the civil market.
By comparison, raw materials and semiconductor equipment are weaker. Although technical breakthroughs have been made in PECVD, oxidation furnace and other equipment in China and they have begun to enter the stage of industrial application, in many aspects, the gap with foreign manufacturers is very large, some of them even rely on imports.
As for all the wafers (wafers) used to produce chips, there are 6-inch, 8-inch and 12 inch wafers in the market at present. The larger the wafer size is, the more chips can be cut out, and then the cost can be reduced. Except for a few special areas, the adoption of large-size wafers is the general trend.
However, the raw materials for such a chip are not less than 450000 pieces of 12 inch wafers needed every month in China, but these wafers are completely dependent on imports. Japan's Yuexin, sumco, sillonic, MEMC / SunEdison account for more than 80% of the market share. Even for 8-inch wafers, the localization rate is only 10%.
Many raw materials are also monopolized by foreign countries. For example, photoresist, which is composed of photosensitive resin, photoinitiator, additive, solvent, etc., can be used in the photolithography step to transfer the pattern on the mask plate to the photoresist on the top layer of the wafer surface. At present, semiconductor photoresist market is basically monopolized by international giants such as JSR, Xinyue chemical, Tok and Dow Chemical.
In terms of semiconductor equipment, ASML accounts for more than 70% of the high-end lithography market, and the latest products sell for up to $100 million, still in short supply, and the order has been scheduled to 2018. In the ion implanter, the United States accounts for 70% of the market share of applied materials, and in the gelatinizer, Tokyo electronics accounts for 90% of the market share. In terms of sales, applied materials (U.S.), Colin (U.S.), ASML (Netherlands), Tokyo electronics and Kelei (U.S.) rank in the top five, accounting for 66% of the market share of semiconductor equipment.
According to estimates, from 2015 to 2020, the domestic semiconductor industry plans to invest 65 billion US dollars, including 50 billion US dollars in equipment investment. Of these 50 billion dollars, 48 billion dollars will be used to import equipment from abroad. In other words, in terms of total amount, 95% of semiconductor equipment will be imported between 2015 and 2020.
The most exciting thing this time is that we have made gratifying achievements in China's weakest semiconductor equipment - the 16 nm etching machine of medium and micro semiconductors has realized commercial mass production and operated on the production line of customers, and the 7-10 nm etching machine equipment can be compared with the most advanced technology in the world. Etching machine is an important equipment for chip production and manufacturing.
Many netizens will confuse the lithography machine with the etching machine. Some netizens even misread the news of realizing the production of 16nm etching machine in China as realizing the production of 16nm lithography machine.
In fact, the lithography machine and the etching machine are two kinds of equipment. The working principle of the lithography machine is to use the laser to temporarily copy the circuit structure on the mask onto the silicon wafer. The etching machine is a kind of equipment which carves the micro - groove or contact hole on the silicon wafer according to the circuit structure carved by the lithography machine.
The requirements of plasma etching machine for machining accuracy are very high. The machining accuracy is one thousandth to one thousandth of the hair diameter. For a 16nm CPU, the processing scale of plasma etching is 1/5000 of that of ordinary human hair, and the precision and repeatability of processing should reach 1/50000.
In China, we can make technological breakthroughs in the field of etching machine, which is inseparable from dozens of overseas technical experts represented by Yin Zhiyao. Yin Zhiyao once served as vice president of Applied Materials (applied materials is the leader of semiconductor equipment manufacturers), participated in the development of several generations of plasma etching equipment, and held 86 patents when he worked in the United States.
13 years ago, at the age of 60, Yin Zhiyao gave up the superior material treatment of the United States and returned home to start his own business. Yin Zhiyao said, "we have done a lot to make a wedding dress for foreigners, so we should make some contributions to our motherland and people, so we are determined to come back.".
Together with Yin Zhiyao, there are 30 senior engineers who have 20-30 years of experience in semiconductor equipment R & D and manufacturing in applied materials, Kelin and other international giants. At the time of returning to China, all technical experts promised not to bring the technology of American companies, including design drawings and technological processes back to China. The United States also thoroughly checked more than 6 million documents and all personal computers held by returned personnel.
After returning to China, Yin Zhiyao's team started from scratch and applied for a new patent. Finally, in 2008, the etching machine of meso and micro semiconductors began to enter the international market. In this case, foreign companies cannot accept that the Chinese can make high-performance etching machines within three years, and applied materials and Colin have filed patent lawsuits against China micro semiconductor successively. After the patent evidence of key technologies was presented, the two long-lasting lawsuits ended with the success of the company.
With the rise of meso and micro semiconductors, the industrial safety bureau of the U.S. Department of Commerce issued a special announcement in 2015. Recognizing that China can make plasma etchers with international competitiveness and mass production, it decided to remove the plasma etchers from the list controlled by the United States for China.
In addition, in terms of MOCVD equipment used to produce LED lighting chips, meso and micro semiconductors have also made technological breakthroughs. Although the technical parameters of the equipment are not disclosed in CCTV programs, it is clear that "the products have reached the world's top level". Moreover, the MOCVD equipment of middle and micro semiconductors has its own characteristics. Before that, the market equipment mostly used 400mm wafer tray, and the medium and micro semiconductors made 700mm wafer tray, which is equivalent to doubling the chip output in the same time.
This product has successfully defeated the foreign monopoly. Due to the improvement of equipment performance, the production cost of LED chips has been reduced. The cost of LED lighting products has been reduced by more than 50%. At present, the global annual shipment of this equipment is about 100-150 sets, of which 60-70 are provided by China micro. The cost of LED lamp would not be at the current level if it was not for the localization of the equipment by the medium and micro semiconductors.
At present, the output value of China micro semiconductor has reached 1.1 billion yuan, and its products are exported to Europe, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and other places.
Yao Lijun once worked for Honeywell, served as the general executive officer of Japanese production base of Electronic Materials Department of Honeywell and the president of Greater China of Electronic Materials Department of Honeywell. In 2005, Yao Lijun led many experts back to China to start their own business and engage in the research and development of high-purity sputtering targets.
High purity sputtering target is the key material in semiconductor chip manufacturing, and the purity of metal target required for chip manufacturing needs to reach a higher 99.9999%. At present, only four companies in the world master the manufacturing process of this material.
The production and manufacturing of the target materials need to go through repeated deformation of the characteristic direction to control the microstructure inside the metal. This control determines the reliability and stability of the target materials. Through the process, the crystal arrangement is changed, making it suitable for the direction of semiconductor chip.
In the past, high-purity metal raw materials relied on imports. In the process of developing target materials, Yao Lijun's team tried to buy high-purity titanium from Honeywell in the United States and Osaka titanium industry in Japan, but foreign enterprises did not sell them at all. This makes Yao Lijun can only develop high-purity titanium metal and related production equipment from scratch. And finally realize from the process to large-scale equipment are domestic independent design.
For example, the welding equipment, titanium copper and other metals need to go through the high temperature above 700 degrees and 120 MPa pressure for large-area welding, the whole process takes 16 hours. Although the process is also called welding, in fact, it allows different metals to realize seamless connection through atomic diffusion on the contact surface under high temperature and high pressure. There is no need for any solder in the middle. The strength of this kind of welding can reach 200 MPa, which is more than 10 times of that of ordinary brazing. Only such welding can make the material purer.
In the past, this kind of processing had to be sent to Japan for OEM. It costs 50000 yuan to process a furnace, but now it costs 8000 yuan to process a furnace. For example, the ultra-high purity titanium melting and casting equipment can purify materials at 1800 degrees Celsius. After the metal titanium is melted and purified, it will finally solidify into titanium ingot. Technically, it has reached the level of the United States and Japan. At present, Yao Lijun's Jiangfeng electronics has authorized more than 140 invention patents. Yao Lijun's high-purity sputtering target has been adopted by 270 enterprises around the world.
Although the gap between China and foreign countries in raw materials and semiconductor equipment is very large, with the gradual transfer of wafer foundry, packaging testing and IC design to East Asia and even China, and China's increasing investment in this area, if foreign governments do not interfere, it is only a matter of time before semiconductor equipment and raw materials are transferred to China. The technological breakthrough made by domestic enterprises in some fields is that domestic enterprises gradually realize the localization and replacement of semiconductor equipment and raw materials. With the passage of time, similar technological breakthroughs will become more and more, and eventually change from quantitative change to qualitative change.