語言
Magnetron sputtering (磁控濺射台))

新聞資訊

熱門關鍵詞

聯係91xjcc下载官网

名 稱:蘇州91xjcc下载ioses電子科技有限公司

電 話:0512-58987901

傳 真:0512-58987201

郵 箱:sales@tonertimes.com

地 址:江蘇省張家港經濟開發區複興路2號B06棟1樓215600PRC

網 址:www.tonertimes.com

Name: Suzhou cycas  Microelectronics Co., Ltd.

Tel.: 0512-58987901

Fax: 0512-58987201

Email: sales@tonertimes.com

Address: 1st floor,B06 building,No.2,Fuxing Road,Zhangjiagang Economic Development Zone,Jiangsu Province 215600PRC

Website: www.tonertimes.com 

鈦合金的蝕刻機加工工藝Etching machining technology of titanium alloy

您的當前位置: 首 頁 >> 新聞資訊 >> 行業新聞

鈦合金的蝕刻機加工工藝Etching machining technology of titanium alloy

發布日期:2018-08-25 作者:www.tonertimes.com 點擊:

一、鈦和鈦合金的概述:

  Ti在地殼中的豐度為0.56%(質量分數,下同),在所有按元素中居第9位,而在可作為結構材料的金屬中居第4位,僅次於Al、Fe、Mg,其儲量比常見金屬Cu,Pb,Zn儲量的總和還多。我國鈦資源豐富,儲量為世界第一。鈦合金的密度小,比強度、比剛度高,抗腐蝕性能、高溫力學性能、抗疲勞和蠕變性能都很好,具有優良的綜合能,是一種新型的、很有發展潛力和應用前景的結構材料。近年來,世界鈦工業和鈦材加工技術得到了飛速發展,海綿鈦、變形鈦合金和鈦合金加工材的生產和消費都達到了很高的水平,在航空航天領域、艦艇及兵器等軍品製造中的應用日益廣泛,在汽車、化學和能源等行業也有著巨大的應用潛力。

  2001年以來鈦得到了更加廣泛的應用,在一些新興市場上應用的跡象得到了增長,如汽車、石油和天然氣。從長遠來看,汽車上的用鈦量將不斷增加,成為鈦應用的一個更有保障的競爭領域。在高端消費品領域鈦合金的應用也已經基本成熟,如鈦合金在高爾夫球杆和網球拍上的應用。當今社會老齡化問題越來越嚴重,醫藥市場對鈦需求量不斷增加,每年正以5%~7%的速度增長,在生物醫藥部門鈦已成為另一個熱門且具有廣闊的應用發展前景。以上新興市場鈦的消費量每年都呈增長趨勢,2001年鈦消費量為6000噸,2006年增加到10000噸。2007年以後隨著經濟的發展和國防事業的需要,國際市場對鈦合金產品的需求大幅增加,特別是航空航天領域將成為未來幾年國際市場的主要消費和應用領域。

  鈦及鈦合金具有許多優良特性,主要體現在如下幾個方麵:

  (1)比強度高。鈦合金具有很高的強度,其抗拉強度為686~1 176 MPa,而密度僅為鋼的60%左右,所以比強度很高。

  (2)硬度較高。鈦合金(退火態)的硬度HRC為32~38。

  (3)彈性模量低。鈦合金(退火態)的彈性模量為1.078@105~1.176@105MPa,約為鋼和不鏽鋼的一半。

  (4)高溫和低溫性能優良。在高溫下,鈦合金仍能保持良好的機械性能,其耐熱性遠高於鋁合金,且工作溫度範圍較寬,目前新型耐熱鈦合金的工作溫度可達550~600e;在低溫下,鈦合金的強度反而比在常溫時增加,且具有良好的韌性,低溫鈦合金在-253e時還能保持良好的韌性。

  (5)鈦的抗腐蝕性強。鈦在550e以下的空氣中,表麵會迅速形成薄而致密的氧化鈦膜,故在大氣、海水、硝酸和硫酸等氧化性介質及強堿中,其耐蝕性優於大多數不鏽鋼。

  二、鈦合金等離子刻蝕機加工的研究進展:

  蝕刻機加工作為一種化學切削加工技術,其曆史可以追溯到很久遠的年代。在歐洲,化學蝕刻機加工到15世紀變得流行起來,當時主要是用於鎧甲的加工及藝術品的蝕刻機加工。Z早的歐洲文字記載所有的蝕刻液配方是用鹽、活性炭和醋配製而成。記載Z早的防蝕材料是用亞麻油塗料做保護層,稍晚一些的記載也有用石蠟作為防蝕劑。

  17 世紀是一個醫藥化學和試驗酸、堿對各種不同材料影響的時代。約翰·格萊伯在這方麵取得了不少的進展,其中包括對鹽酸製造方法的改進。在這一時期化學腐蝕技術在未來航空工業上的應用也顯露出來。當時人們采用酸和鐵屑反應的方法來製取氫氣球進行升空。這就是說,在人們企圖飛行的Z初階段,已開始利用酸的腐蝕能力來幫助航空事業的發展。到 20 世紀 60 年代中期,由於蝕刻機加工及防蝕技術的發展,已經使蝕刻機加工成為一種非常有實用價值的生產加工方法,在航空航天工業中得到廣泛應有。

  蝕刻機加工技術和其它技術相比,它能使許多零件更簡單、更容易、更便宜地生產出來,為一些零件的加工提供了機械加工方法難於實現的一種方法。同時,蝕刻機加工作為一種精密而科學的化學加工技術,在多種金屬材料上被大量用於腐蝕各種不同的圖文及外形加工。近幾十年來,隨著經濟的發展,國防事業的需要,蝕刻機加工技術的應用越來越被人們重視。例如:旅遊紀念品的開發,銘牌、獎牌、編碼盤和顯示屏電極的製作、印花輥筒和模版、精細零件等,都離不開蝕刻機加工技術。

  三、鈦合金化學蝕刻機加工液配方:

  鈦合金蝕刻機加工液中主要含有蝕刻液、氧化劑和添加劑: (1)蝕刻液

  鈦合金蝕刻機加工液中 HF是超過其它任何酸的強蝕刻液。在室溫的 HF 溶液中,鈦就能被腐蝕,隨著酸濃度的增加,腐蝕速度明顯增大。

  (2)氧化劑

  H2CrO4和 HNO3為蝕刻機加工液中常用的氧化劑,早期鈦的蝕刻機加工,在美國廣泛采用的蝕刻液是以 HF 和 H2CrO4為基礎的混酸型蝕刻機加工液,隨後英國人采用 HF 和 HNO3為基礎的混酸型蝕刻機加工液。但 H2CrO4成本高、對環境的汙染嚴重、反應後試樣易氫脆;而 HNO3作為強氧化劑,有強烈的氧化性,使氫氣隨即被氧化成水,抑製了吸氫反應,使鈦表麵吸附的氫減少。

  (3)添加劑

  添加劑具有改善試樣表麵質量的作用,鈦合金蝕刻機加工時要防止試樣表麵產生氣溝、蝕溝、波紋、壟狀物、麻點等缺陷,同時還要注意減少吸氫量,防止材料發生氫脆,優良的表麵活性劑要具有降低表麵張力、潤濕等多種作用,一種添加劑很難同時具備這些作用,所以需要同時加入幾種添加劑通過協同作用在不影響材料機械性能的前提下達到蝕刻機加工精度要求。鈦合金蝕刻機加工選擇加入添加劑種類時要考慮以下幾個方麵:

  ① 反應過程中是否可以減少試樣表麵的吸氫量,防止氫脆; ② 對試樣加工前後各項力學性能無任何影響; ③ 試樣腐蝕溶解速度均勻,提高試樣表麵質量;

  ④ 不影響蝕刻機加工液各成分發揮效用,使蝕刻機加工液壽命延長。 四、蝕刻機加工的優點和局限性: 蝕刻機加工具有諸多優點,對於某些用機械方法難於加工的零件確實有其獨到之處:

  ① 能加工高硬度高韌性的金屬材料;

  ② 能加工複雜形狀的工件,如單雙曲度薄壁工件等;

  ③ 加工過程中無機械力,無加工應力,對工件幾乎無剛度要求; ④ 蝕刻機加工時工裝設備簡單、價廉;

等離子刻蝕機

  ⑤ 能加工沿著整個長度方向上截麵均勻變化的,長而薄的錐形工件; ⑥ 蝕刻機加工能不間斷的進行工件加工且能很快加工出想要的各種形狀。 但蝕刻機加工也不是一種萬能的加工方法,它也會受到很多因素的限製。其中Z主要的限製為:

  a. 蝕刻機加工隻能以零件原有的表麵狀態為基準,累進式進行切削。因此經蝕刻機加工後的零件形狀及表麵質量,與零件原始的形狀及表麵質量有直接關係。更多的情況是經蝕刻機加工後的加工表麵完全與原來的初始基準表麵狀態保持平行。從這些限製可以看出,蝕刻機加工不能用表麵粗糙的板材、棒材等來加工形狀複雜的零件;

  b. 蝕刻機加工不可用於加工窄而深的凹槽,這是因為在蝕刻機加工反應過程中產生的氣泡會集聚在防蝕層邊緣的下麵,這些堵在防蝕層下麵的氣泡把金屬表麵與蝕刻液隔開,造成一種非常不規則的腐蝕,形成很不整齊的邊緣,這對於深度大的零件加工非常不利;

  c. 不能用蝕刻機加工方法進行鑽孔,蝕刻機加工鑽孔和機械方法及電解方法鑽孔都不相同,它不能加工出後麵兩者所能加工出來的孔形。選擇合適的工藝方法可以鑽出孔壁平直的孔來,而蝕刻機加工鑽孔隻能鑽出不規則的錐形孔。對於深度蝕刻機加工鑽孔由於腐蝕時間長,而使公差增大,所以蝕刻機加工鑽孔一般不采用;

  d. 蝕刻機加工過程中各種酸液揮發,易造成環境汙染,影響人身健康。 五、鈦合金精密蝕刻機加工:

  蝕刻機加工的尺寸精度受兩個方麵的影響:a、蝕刻機加工本身在加工過程中所產生的偏差,這是由各個被加工表麵上不同腐蝕速度造成的,這就使得腐蝕去掉的金屬厚度或腐蝕深度有了差異。b、被腐蝕材料的精度,這是指零件在進行化學腐蝕之前,原材料本身即已存在的偏差,也稱為毛胚偏差。蝕刻機加工中的公差是這兩個精度偏差的總和,所以在進行蝕刻機加工時必須要把這兩個偏差都計算在內,否則經蝕刻機加工的零件會有很大程度的尺寸偏差。蝕刻機加工的加工公差主要受以下幾個因素的影響:

  ① 零件材料成分的影響:

  同一蝕刻機加工液對不同材料的蝕刻機加工速度和側蝕率不同,從而使不同材料腐蝕後得到不同的表麵精度。然而,即使同一種材料也可能因為材料型號和批次的不同而產生不同的腐蝕速度及效果,在同一腐蝕液中也會產生不同的腐蝕公差。

  ② 零件尺寸大小的影響: 不同於小型零件的蝕刻機加工,對於一個大型的板材零件如果是垂直放於腐蝕槽中,經腐蝕後由於蝕刻機加工速度的不同會出現下薄上厚的錐形,所以在計算公差時也應把這種由於蝕刻機加工本身造成的公差計入總公差。對於小型零件這種現象可以忽略不計。

  ③ 蝕刻機加工深度的影響:

  蝕刻機加工深度的大小與零件在腐蝕液中浸泡時間的長短有直接關係,蝕刻機加工深度越深,零件在腐蝕液中浸泡時間越長,蝕刻機加工液中發生腐蝕溶解反應,其中各種化學成分的組分和濃度變化也越來越大,進而使蝕刻機加工速度及腐蝕效果變化增大。同時過深的蝕刻機加工,當深度達到一定值後,由於濃差極化及腐蝕殘渣的沉積,其腐蝕溶解行為及機理行為也會發生變化。

  ④ 蝕刻液的影響:

  因蝕刻機加工溶液主體成分和濃度的不同,對零件的蝕刻機加工速度和表麵質量有一定的影響。隨著溶液中蝕刻液和氧化劑濃度的改變,蝕刻機加工速度也會隨之改變,這時對零件表麵質量也會產生一定的影響,進而影響零件總公差的改變。

  六、蝕刻機加工對材料力學性能的影響:

  金屬經蝕刻機加工後,原有力學性能會受到一定的影響,這種影響隨著腐蝕程度的增加而加大

      1、 Overview of titanium and titanium alloy: 

        The abundance of Ti in the earth's crust is 0.56% (mass fraction, the same below), ranking 9th in all elements, and 4th in metals that can be used as structural materials, next to Al, Fe, Mg. Its reserves are more than the sum of common metals Cu, Pb, Zn. China is rich in titanium resources, with the largest reserves in the world. Titanium alloy is a new type of structural material with great development potential and application prospect because of its low density, high specific strength, high specific stiffness, good corrosion resistance, high temperature mechanical properties, fatigue resistance and creep resistance. In recent years, the world titanium industry and titanium material processing technology have been developed rapidly. The production and consumption of sponge titanium, deformed titanium alloy and titanium alloy processing materials have reached a very high level. They are widely used in the field of aerospace, naval ships, weapons and other military products manufacturing. They also have great application potential in automobiles, chemistry, energy and other industries. 

    Since 2001, titanium has been used more widely, and its application in some emerging markets, such as automobiless, oil and natural gas, has increased. In the long run, the amount of titanium used in automobiless will continue to increase and become a more secure competitive field for titanium applications. The application of titanium alloy in the field of high-end consumer goods has also been basically mature, such as the application of titanium alloy in golf clubs and tennis rackets. Nowadays, the aging problem is becoming more and more serious. The demand for titanium in the pharmaceutical market is increasing at a rate of 5% - 7% every year. Titanium in the biomedical sector has become another hot and broad application prospect. The consumption of titanium in the above emerging markets is increasing every year. In 2001, the consumption of titanium was 6000 tons, and in 2006, it increased to 10000 tons. After 2007, with the development of economy and the need of national defense, the demand for titanium alloy products in the international market has greatly increased, especially in the field of aerospace, which will become the main consumption and application field in the international market in the next few years. 

    Titanium and its alloys have many excellent properties, mainly in the following aspects: 

(1) high specific strength. Titanium alloy has very high strength, its tensile strength is 686 ~ 1176mpa, and its density is only about 60% of steel, so its specific strength is very high. 

(2) High hardness. The hardness HRC of titanium alloy (as annealed) is 32-38. 

(3) Low modulus of elasticity. The elastic modulus of titanium alloy (annealed) is 1.078 @ 105 ~ 1.176 @ 105Mpa, about half of that of steel and stainless steel. 

(4) High and low temperature performance. At high temperature, titanium alloy can still maintain good mechanical properties, its heat resistance is far higher than aluminum alloy, and the working temperature range is wide. At present, the working temperature of the new heat-resistant titanium alloy can reach 550-600e; at low temperature, the strength of titanium alloy is higher than that at normal temperature, and it has good toughness. At - 253e, the low temperature titanium alloy can still maintain good toughness. 

(5) Titanium has strong corrosion resistance. When titanium is in the air below 550E, a thin and compact titanium oxide film will be formed on the surface of titanium rapidly. Therefore, in the oxidizing media such as atmosphere, sea water, nitric acid and sulfuric acid and strong alkali, its corrosion resistance is better than that of most stainless steels. 

2、 Research progress of plasma etching machining of titanium alloy:

   As a chemical cutting technology, etching machining has a long history. In Europe, chemical etching became popular in the 15th century, when it was mainly used for the processing of armor and the etching of artwork. The earliest European writing recorded that all the etchant formulations were made of salt, activated carbon and vinegar. The earliest anti-corrosion material recorded is flax oil coating as the protective layer, and later some records also use paraffin as the anti-corrosion agent. 

  The 17th century is an era of medicinal chemistry and the experiment of the influence of acid and alkali on various materials. John Graber has made a lot of progress in this field, including the improvement of hydrochloric acid manufacturing method. In this period, the application of chemical corrosion technology in the future aviation industry is also revealed. At that time, people used acid and iron chips to react to make hydrogen balloons for launching. That is to say, in the initial stage of people's attempt to fly, acid corrosion ability has been used to help the development of aviation industry. By the mid-1960s, due to the development of etching and anti-corrosion technology, etching has become a very practical production and processing method, which is widely used in aerospace industry. 

  Compared with other technologies, etching machining technology can make many parts more simple, easier and cheaper to produce, which provides a method that is difficult to realize for machining some parts. At the same time, as a kind of precise and scientific chemical processing technology, etch machining is widely used to corrode a variety of different graphics and shapes on a variety of metal materials. In recent decades, with the development of economy and the need of national defense, people pay more and more attention to the application of etching machining technology. For example, the development of tourist souvenirs, the production of nameplates, medals, coding plates and display electrodes, printing rollers and templates, fine parts, etc., are all inseparable from the etching machining technology.

      3、 Formula of chemical etching machining fluid for titanium alloy: 

     The etching machining fluid for titanium alloy mainly contains etching fluid, oxidant and additive: 

(1) HF in etching machining fluid for titanium alloy is stronger than any other acid. In HF solution at room temperature, titanium can be corroded. With the increase of acid concentration, the corrosion rate increases obviously. 

(2) The oxidants H2CrO4 and HNO3 are commonly used in the etching machining fluid. In the early stage of titanium etching machining, the etching fluid widely used in the United States was a mixed acid etching machining fluid based on HF and H2CrO4. Later, the British adopted the mixed acid etching machining fluid based on HF and HNO3. However, the cost of H2CrO4 is high, the pollution to the environment is serious, and the sample is easy to hydrogen embrittlement after reaction. As a strong oxidant, HNO3 has strong oxidability, which immediately oxidizes hydrogen to water, inhibits the hydrogen absorption reaction, and reduces the hydrogen adsorbed on the titanium surface. 

(3) Additives Additives have the function of improving the surface quality of the sample. During the etching and machining of titanium alloy, defects such as air groove, erosion groove, corrugation, ridge and pockmarks should be prevented. At the same time, hydrogen absorption should be reduced to prevent hydrogen embrittlement of the material. Excellent surfactants should have many functions such as reducing surface tension and wetting. It is difficult for an additive to have these functions at the same time Therefore, it is necessary to add several additives at the same time to achieve the requirements of etching accuracy without affecting the mechanical properties of materials. The following aspects should be considered in the selection of additives for titanium alloy etching machining: 

① in the reaction process, whether the hydrogen absorption on the sample surface can be reduced to prevent hydrogen embrittlement;

② there is no effect on the mechanical properties of the sample before and after processing; 

③ the corrosion dissolution speed of the sample is uniform to improve the surface quality of the sample; 

④ It does not affect the effectiveness of the components of the etching fluid, so as to prolong the service life of the etching fluid. 4、 Advantages and limitations of etch machining: 

      Etch machining has many advantages, for some parts that are difficult to be machined by mechanical methods, it has its own unique features: 

① it can process metal materials with high hardness and toughness; 

② it can process workpieces with complex shapes, such as single hyperbolic thin-walled workpieces, etc; 

③ In the process of machining, there is no mechanical force, no machining stress, and there is almost no rigidity requirement for the workpiece; 

④ the tooling equipment is simple and cheap during etching machining; 

⑤ the long and thin tapered workpiece with uniform section change along the whole length direction can be processed; 

⑥ the etching machining can continuously process the workpiece and quickly process the desired shapes. But etching machining is not a universal processing method, it will also be limited by many factors. The most important limitation is: 

a. the etching machining can only be based on the original surface state of the parts, and the progressive cutting. Therefore, the shape and surface quality of parts machined by etching are directly related to the original shape and surface quality of parts. More often, the etched machined surface is completely parallel to the original initial reference surface. From these limitations, it can be seen that etching machining can not use rough surface plates, bars and other parts to process complex shapes; 

b. Etching machining cannot be used to process narrow and deep grooves, because the bubbles generated in the process of etching machining reaction will gather under the edge of the anti-corrosion layer. These bubbles blocked under the anti-corrosion layer will separate the metal surface from the etching solution, resulting in a very irregular corrosion, forming a very irregular edge, which is very unfavorable for the processing of deep parts; 

c. It can't be drilled by etching machining. Etching machining drilling is different from mechanical drilling and electrolytic drilling. It can't process the hole shape that the latter two can process. Choosing appropriate technology can drill holes with flat wall, while etching machining can only drill holes with irregular cone shape. Because of the long time of corrosion, the tolerance of deep etching machining drilling increases, so the etching machining drilling is generally not used; 

d. in the process of etching machining, all kinds of acid volatilization is easy to cause environmental pollution and affect personal health. 

5、 Precision etching machining of titanium alloy: the dimensional accuracy of etching machining is affected by two aspects:

 a. the deviation of etching machining itself in the process of machining is caused by the different corrosion speed on each machined surface, which makes the thickness or corrosion depth of metal removed by corrosion different. 

b. The accuracy of the corroded material refers to the deviation existing in the raw material itself before the chemical corrosion of the parts, also known as the rough embryo deviation. The tolerance in the etching machining is the sum of these two precision deviations, so both deviations must be calculated in the etching machining, otherwise the parts processed by the etching machining will have a large degree of dimensional deviation. The machining tolerance of etching machining is mainly affected by the following factors:

       ① Influence of material composition of parts: the same etching fluid has different etching machining speed and side etching rate for different materials, so that different materials can get different surface precision after corrosion. However, even if the same material may have different corrosion rate and effect due to different material model and batch, different corrosion tolerance will be produced in the same corrosive solution. 

       ② Influence of part size: different from the etching machining of small parts, if a large plate part is placed vertically in the corrosion groove, there will be a taper with thin bottom and thick top due to different etching machining speed after corrosion, so the tolerance caused by the etching machining itself should also be included in the total tolerance when calculating the tolerance. This phenomenon can be ignored for small parts. 

       ③ Effect of etch machining depth: There is a direct relationship between the etching depth and the immersion time of the parts in the etching solution. The deeper the etching depth is, the longer the parts are immersed in the etching solution, and the corrosion dissolution reaction takes place in the etching solution, in which the composition and concentration of various chemical components change more and more, thus increasing the etching processing speed and corrosion effect. At the same time, when the depth reaches a certain value, due to concentration polarization and corrosion residue deposition, the corrosion dissolution behavior and mechanism behavior will also change. 

      ④ Effect of etching solution: due to the difference of the main composition and concentration of etching solution, it has a certain impact on the etching speed and surface quality of parts. With the change of the concentration of etching solution and oxidant in the solution, the machining speed of etching will also change, which will have a certain impact on the surface quality of parts, and then affect the change of the total tolerance of parts. 

      6、 Effect of etching machining on mechanical properties of materials: after etching machining, the original mechanical properties of metals will be affected to some extent, which will increase with the increase of corrosion degree.

本文網址:http://www.tonertimes.com/news/405.html

相關標簽:等離子刻蝕機

Z近瀏覽: