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Principle and solution of medium frequency magnetron sputtering coating technology中頻磁控濺射鍍膜技術的原理及問題解答

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Principle and solution of medium frequency magnetron sputtering coating technology中頻磁控濺射鍍膜技術的原理及問題解答

發布日期:2019-01-19 作者:www.tonertimes.com 點擊:

真空爐磁控濺射包括很多種類。各有不同工作原理和應用對象。但有一共同點:利用磁場與電子交互作用,使電子在靶表麵附近成螺旋狀運行,從而增大電子撞擊氬氣產生離子的概率。所產生的離子在電場作用下撞向靶麵從而濺射出靶材。在近幾十年的發展中,大家逐漸采用永久磁鐵,很少用線圈磁鐵。

靶源分平衡和非平衡式,平衡式靶源鍍膜均勻,非平衡式靶源鍍膜膜層和基體結合力強。平衡靶源多用於半導體光學膜,非平衡多用於磨損裝飾膜。

不管平衡非平衡,若磁鐵靜止,其磁場特性決定一般靶材利用率小於30%。為增大靶材利用率,可采用旋轉磁場。但旋轉磁場需要旋轉機構,同時濺射速率要減小。旋轉磁場多用於大型或貴重靶。如半導體膜濺射。對於小型設備和一般工業設備,多用磁場靜止靶源。真空爐

用磁控靶源濺射金屬和合金很容易,點火和濺射很方便。這是因為靶(陰極),等離子體,和被濺零件/真空腔體可形成回路。但若濺射絕緣體如陶瓷則回路斷了。於是人們采用高頻電源,回路中加入很強的電容。這樣在絕緣回路中靶材成了一個電容。但高頻磁控濺射電源昂貴,濺射速率很小,同時接地技術很複雜,因而難大規模采用。為解決此問題,發明了磁控反應濺射。就是用金屬靶,加入氬氣和反應氣體如氮氣或氧氣。當金屬靶材撞向零件時由於能量轉化,與反應氣體化合生成氮化物或氧化物。

磁控濺射台

磁控濺射台反應濺射絕緣體看似容易,而實際操作困難。主要問題是反應不光發生在零件表麵,也發生在陽極,真空腔體表麵,以及靶源表麵。從而引起滅火,靶源和工件表麵起弧等。德國萊寶發明的孿生靶源技術,很好的解決了這個問題。其原理是一對靶源互相為陰陽極,從而消除陽極表麵氧化或氮化。

冷卻是一切源(磁控,多弧,離子)所必需,因為能量很大一部分轉為熱量,若無冷卻或冷卻不足,這種熱量將使靶源溫度達一千度以上從而溶化整個靶源。

一台磁控設備往往很昂貴,但大家容易將錢花在設備其它上如真空泵,MFC, 膜厚測量上而忽略靶源。再好的磁控濺射設備若無好靶源,就像畫龍而沒有點睛一樣。

采用中頻濺射的優點是可得到光滑致密.膜層硬度高.膜厚可線性成長.不中毒.溫升緩和,但設備的要求較高,工作壓強範圍很窄,各種控製要求快速精準.真空爐

多弧濺射在靶材上施小電壓大電流使材料離子化(帶正電顆粒), 從而高速擊向基片(負電)並沉積,形成致密膜堅硬膜。主要用於耐磨耐蝕膜。其缺點是正負電撞造成膜層不均勻,空穴、燒蝕。

中頻濺射的原理跟一般的直流濺射是相同的,不同的是直流濺射把筒體當陽極,而中頻濺射是成對的,筒體是否參加必須視整體設計而定,與整個係統濺射過程中,陽極陰極的安排有關,參與的比率周期有很多方法,不同的方法可得到不相同的濺射產額,得到不相同的離子密度

中頻濺射主要技術在於電源的設計與應用,目前較成熟的是正弦波與脈衝方波二種方式輸出,各有其優缺點,首先應考慮膜層種類,分析哪種電源輸出方式適合哪種膜層,可以用電源特性來得到想要的膜層效果.

      There are many kinds of magnetron sputtering in vacuum furnace. There are different working principles and application objects. However, there is one thing in common: the interaction between magnetic field and electron makes the electron spiral around the target surface, thus increasing the probability of electron impacting argon to produce ions. The generated ions hit the target surface under the action of electric field, thus splashing out of the target. In recent decades of development, we gradually use permanent magnets, rarely coil magnets. 

    The target source is divided into equilibrium and non-equilibrium type, the equilibrium type target source coating is uniform, and the non-equilibrium type target source coating has strong binding force with the substrate. The balanced target source is mainly used for semiconductor optical films, and the unbalanced target source is mainly used for wear decorative films. 

    Whether the balance is unbalanced or not, if the magnet is stationary, its magnetic field characteristics determine that the utilization rate of the general target is less than 30%. In order to increase the utilization ratio of the target, the rotating magnetic field can be used. But the rotating magnetic field needs a rotating mechanism, and the sputtering rate should be reduced. Rotating magnetic field is mostly used for large or valuable targets. Such as semiconductor film sputtering. For small equipment and general industrial equipment, magnetic static target source is used.

    It is easy to sputter metal and alloy with magnetron target source in vacuum furnace, and easy to ignite and sputter. This is because the target (cathode), plasma, and splashed parts / vacuum cavity can form a circuit. But if sputtering insulator such as ceramic, the circuit will be broken. So people use high-frequency power supply, and a strong capacitance is added to the circuit. In this way, the target becomes a capacitor in the insulating circuit. However, the high frequency magnetron sputtering power supply is expensive, the sputtering rate is very small, and the grounding technology is very complex, so it is difficult to use it on a large scale. In order to solve this problem, magnetron reactive sputtering was invented. It is to use metal target, add argon and reaction gas such as nitrogen or oxygen. When the metal target collides with the part, it combines with the reaction gas to form nitride or oxide due to energy conversion.

     Reactive sputtering insulator of magnetron sputtering table seems easy, but it is difficult to operate in practice. The main problem is that the reaction occurs not only on the surface of parts, but also on the surface of anode, vacuum cavity and target source. So as to cause fire-fighting, arc on target source and workpiece surface, etc. The twin target source technology invented by German LeiBao solves this problem well. The principle is that a pair of target sources are cathode and anode to each other, so as to eliminate anodizing or nitriding on the anode surface.

   Cooling is necessary for all sources (magnetically controlled, multi arc, ion), because a large part of energy is converted into heat. If there is no cooling or insufficient cooling, this heat will make the target temperature reach more than 1000 degrees and dissolve the whole target. 

    A magnetic control equipment is often very expensive, but it is easy to spend money on other equipment such as vacuum pump, MFC, film thickness measurement and ignore the target source. No matter how good the magnetron sputtering equipment is, without a good target source, it's like a dragon without a finishing touch. 

   The advantages of medium frequency sputtering are smooth and compact, high film hardness, linear growth of film thickness, no poisoning, moderate temperature rise, but high requirements of equipment and narrow working pressure range, Various control requirements are fast and accurate.

  Vacuum furnace multi arc sputtering applies small voltage and large current to the target to make the material ionize (with positive particles), so as to hit the substrate (negative electricity) at high speed and deposit, forming a dense film hard. Mainly used for wear-resistant and corrosion-resistant film. Its disadvantage is that the film is uneven, cavitating and ablating. 

  The principle of medium frequency sputtering is the same as that of general DC sputtering. The difference is that the cylinder is used as the anode for DC sputtering, and the medium frequency sputtering is in pairs. Whether the cylinder participates in the sputtering depends on the overall design, which is related to the arrangement of anode and cathode in the whole system sputtering process. There are many ways to participate in the ratio period. Different methods can get different sputtering yields, The main technology of if sputtering with different ion density is the design and application of power supply.

  At present, sine wave and pulse square wave are two mature ways to output, each of which has its advantages and disadvantages. First, we should consider the type of film, analyze which power output mode is suitable for which film, and use the characteristics of power supply to get the desired film effect.

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