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PVD沉積方式的比較Comparison of PVD deposition methods

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PVD沉積方式的比較Comparison of PVD deposition methods

發布日期:2019-02-16 作者:www.tonertimes.com 點擊:

一.PVD是指什麽?

PVD(Physical VaporDeposition),在真空條件下,采用物理方法,使材料源表麵氣化成原子、分子或離子,在基體表麵沉積具有某種特殊功能的薄膜的技術。PVD主要分為蒸鍍、濺射和離子鍍三大類。

磁控濺射台

二.真空蒸鍍

真空條件下,將鍍料加熱蒸發或升華,材料的原子或分子直接在襯底上成膜的技術。以下介紹幾種常見的真空蒸鍍技術: 

1.電阻蒸發

采用電阻加熱蒸發源的蒸發鍍膜技術,一般用於蒸發低熔點材料,如鋁、金、銀、硫化鋅、氟化鎂、三氧化二鉻等;加熱電阻一般采用鎢、鉬、鉭等。

優點

 結構簡單、成本低、

缺點

 材料易與坩堝反應,影響薄膜純度

 不能蒸鍍高熔點的介電薄膜;

 蒸發率低

2.電子束蒸發

利用高速電子束加熱使材料汽化蒸發,在基片表麵凝結成膜的技術。電子束熱源的能量密度可達104-109w/cm2,可達到3000℃以上,可蒸發高熔點的金屬或介電材料如鎢、鉬、鍺、SiO2、AL2O3等。

電子束加熱的蒸鍍源有直槍型電子槍和e型電子槍兩種(也有環行),電子束自源發出,用磁場線圈使電子束聚焦和偏轉,對膜料進行轟擊和加熱。

優點

  可蒸發任何材料

  薄膜純度高

  直接作用於材料表麵,熱效率高

缺點

  電子槍結構複雜,造價高

  化合物沉積時易分解,化學比失調

3.激光蒸發

采用高能激光束對材料進行蒸發,用以形成薄膜的方法,一般稱為激光蒸鍍。

優點

 薄膜純度高

 蒸發速率高

 特別適合蒸發成分複雜的合金或化合物,膜層的化學計量比與靶材保持一致

缺點

 易產生微小顆粒飛濺,影響薄膜質量。

4.感應加熱蒸發

利用高頻電磁場感應加熱,使材料汽化蒸發在基片表麵凝結成膜的技術。 

優點

 蒸發速率大,可比電阻蒸發源大10倍左右  

 蒸發源的溫度穩定,不易產生飛濺現象

 坩堝溫度較低,坩堝材料對膜導汙染較少

缺點

 蒸發裝置必須屏蔽

 造價高、設備複雜 

三.濺射鍍膜

在真空中,高能粒子轟擊材料表麵,使其原子獲得足夠的能量而逸出表麵,到達襯底凝結成膜的技術。

與真發鍍膜相比,濺射鍍膜適用於所有(包括高熔點)材料,具有附著力強、成分可控、易於規模化生產等優點.

1.二極濺射

在靶材和襯底之間加上一個直流高壓,極板間的氣體(一般為Ar2)電離,高速帶電離子轟擊靶材表麵的濺射鍍膜技術。要保持自持放電,在兩極板間距為數厘米的正常濺射間距下,放電氣壓一般高達10帕,這對濺射效率和薄膜質量都是不利的。因此,直流濺射多采用非自持放電,也就是加入熱電子發射極和輔助陽極的四極濺射,可使濺射在10-1~10-2帕的低氣壓下進行。

優點

 結構簡單

缺點

 隻能濺射導電性好的金屬材料

 濺射效率較低 

2.射頻濺射

采用射頻電源代替直流電源,在靶和襯底間施加高頻電壓,濺射時,靶極會產生自偏壓效應(即靶極會自動處於負電位狀態),使絕緣靶的濺射得到維持。常用的頻率約為13.56兆赫。

優點

 可以濺射所有材料,包括導體和絕緣體

 濺射效率高

 可大規模生產

缺點

  射頻電源有一定的輻射問題

3.磁控濺射

磁控濺射的工作原理是指電子在電場E的作用下,在飛向基片過程中與氬原子發生碰撞,使其電離產生出Ar正離子和新的電子;新電子飛向基片,Ar離子在電場作用下加速飛向陰極靶,並以高能量轟擊靶表麵,使靶材發生濺射。在濺射粒子中,中性的靶原子或分子沉積在基片上形成薄膜,而產生的二次電子會受到電場和磁場作用,產生E(電場)×B(磁場)所指的方向漂移,簡稱E×B漂移,其運動軌跡近似於一條擺線。若為環形磁場,則電子就以近似擺線形式在靶表麵做圓周運動,它們的運動路徑不僅很長,而且被束縛在靠近靶表麵的等離子體區域內,並且在該區域中電離出大量的Ar 來轟擊靶材,從而實現了高的沉積速率。隨著碰撞次數的增加,二次電子的能量消耗殆盡,逐漸遠離靶表麵,並在電場E的作用下Z終沉積在基片上。由於該電子的能量很低,傳遞給基片的能量很小,致使基片溫升較低。磁控濺射是入射粒子和靶的碰撞過程。入射粒子在靶中經曆複雜的散射過程,和靶原子碰撞,把部分動量傳給靶原子,此靶原子又和其他靶原子碰撞,形成級聯過程。在這種級聯過程中某些表麵附近的靶原子獲得向外運動的足夠動量,離開靶被濺射出來。

1、 What does PVD mean? PVD (physical vapor deposition) is a kind of technology which uses physical methods to vaporize the surface of material source into atoms, molecules or ions under vacuum, and to deposit films with special functions on the surface of substrate. PVD is mainly divided into three categories: evaporation, sputtering and ion plating.

 2 Under vacuum condition, the material is heated, evaporated or sublimed, and the atoms or molecules of the material are directly deposited on the substrate. 

  Several common vacuum evaporation technologies are introduced as follows: 

   1. Resistance evaporation adopts evaporation coating technology of resistance heating evaporation source, which is generally used to evaporate low melting point materials, such as aluminum, gold, silver, zinc sulfide, magnesium fluoride, chromium trioxide, etc.; heating resistance generally adopts tungsten, molybdenum, tantalum, etc. 

    Advantages:

 simple structure, low cost, 

disadvantages: the material is easy to react with the crucible, which affects the purity of the film. The dielectric film with high melting point cannot be evaporated; the evaporation rate is low. 

2. The technology of electron beam evaporation, which uses high-speed electron beam heating to vaporize the material and condense the film on the substrate surface.The energy density of the electron beam heat source can reach 104-109w / cm2, which can reach over 3000 ℃, and can evaporate high melting point metals or dielectric materials such as tungsten, molybdenum, germanium, SiO2, Al2O3, etc. There are two kinds of electron beam heating sources, i.e. the straight gun type electron gun and the E-type electron gun (or the loop type). The electron beam is emitted from the source. The magnetic field coil is used to focus and deflect the electron beam and bombard and heat the film material. 

Advantages: it can evaporate any material. The film has high purity and directly acts on the surface of the material. The thermal efficiency is high. The structure of the electron gun is complex, the cost is high. The compound is easy to decompose when it is deposited, 

Disadvantage:

 the chemical ratio is out of balance. 

3. Laser evaporation uses high-energy laser beam to evaporate the material to form the film, which is generally called laser evaporation. The advantages of the film are high purity, high evaporation rate. It is especially suitable for the alloy or compound with complex evaporation components. The stoichiometric ratio of the film is consistent with the target material. It is easy to produce tiny particles splashing, which affects the film quality. 

4. Induction heating evaporation is a technology that uses high frequency electromagnetic field induction heating to make the material evaporate and condense on the substrate surface to form a film. 

Advantages: 

large evaporation rate, about 10 times larger than resistance evaporation source The temperature of the evaporation source is stable, and it is not easy to produce splashing phenomenon. 

Disadvantage:

The temperature of the crucible is low, and the crucible material has less pollution to the film guide. The evaporation device must be shielded with high cost and complex equipment. Third, the sputtering coating in vacuum, the high-energy particles bombard the surface of the material, so that the atoms can obtain enough energy to escape from the surface, and reach the substrate condensation film technology. Compared with the real hair coating, the sputtering coating is suitable for all (including high melting point) materials. It has the advantages of strong adhesion, controllable composition, easy to scale production and so on. 1. The two pole sputtering adds a DC high voltage between the target and the substrate, the gas (generally ar2) between the plates is ionized, and the high-speed charged ion bombards the target surface. In order to maintain the self-sustaining discharge, the discharge pressure is generally as high as 10 Pa at a normal sputtering distance of several centimeters between the two plates, which is not good for sputtering efficiency and film quality. Therefore, DC sputtering mostly uses non self sustaining discharge, that is, four pole sputtering with hot electron emitter and auxiliary anode, which can make sputtering at low pressure of 10-1-10-2 PA. Advantages: simple structure and disadvantages: only the metal material with good conductivity can be sputtered with low sputtering efficiency. 2. RF power supply is used instead of DC power supply for RF sputtering. When high frequency voltage is applied between target and substrate, the target electrode will produce self bias effect (i.e. the target electrode will automatically be in negative potential state), so that the sputtering of insulation target can be maintained. The commonly used frequency is about 13.56 MHz. Advantages: 

all materials can be sputtered, including conductors and insulators; high sputtering efficiency; mass production

Disadvantages There are some radiation problems in RF power supply. 

3. The working principle of magnetron sputtering is that electrons collide with argon atoms in the process of flying to the substrate under the action of electric field E, resulting in AR positive ions and new electrons; new electrons fly to the substrate, and Ar ions accelerate to fly to the cathode target under the action of electric field, and bombard the target surface with high energy, resulting in sputtering of the target. In sputtered particles, the neutral target atoms or molecules are deposited on the substrate to form a thin film, and the secondary electrons generated will be affected by the electric field and magnetic field, resulting in the direction drift of E (electric field) × B (magnetic field), which is called e × B drift for short, and its motion track is similar to a cycloid. If the magnetic field is circular, the electrons move in the form of approximate cycloid on the target surface. Their motion path is not only very long, but also bound in the plasma region near the target surface. In this region, a lot of AR is ionized to bombard the target, thus achieving a high deposition rate. With the increase of the number of collisions, the energy of the secondary electrons is exhausted and gradually away from the target surface, and finally deposited on the substrate under the action of the electric field E. Because the energy of the electron is very low and the energy transferred to the substrate is very small, the substrate temperature rise is low. Magnetron sputtering is a collision process between the incident particles and the target. The incident particle experiences a complex scattering process in the target, collides with the target atom, and transfers part of the momentum to the target atom, which collides with other target atoms, forming a cascade process. In this kind of cascade process, some target atoms near the surface obtain enough momentum to move outwards, leaving the target to be sputtered out.

       


 


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