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Application of plasma cleaning machine in semiconductor etching process等離子清洗機在半導體刻蝕工藝中的應用

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Application of plasma cleaning machine in semiconductor etching process等離子清洗機在半導體刻蝕工藝中的應用

發布日期:2019-10-11 作者: 點擊:

等離子清洗機在半導體刻蝕工藝中的應用

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生產集成電路的第一步是通過掩模向基底透射電路圖案。光敏性聚合物光刻膠經紫外線曝光後,受照射部分通過顯影作用去除。一旦電路圖案在光刻膠上定型後,即可通過刻蝕工藝將圖案複製到多晶矽等質地的基底薄膜上,從而形成晶體管門電路,同時用鋁或銅實現元器件之間的互連,或用二氧化矽來阻斷互連路徑。刻蝕的作用在於將印刷圖案以極高的準確性轉移到基底上,因此刻蝕工藝必須有選擇地去除不同薄膜,基底的刻蝕要求具備高度選擇性。否則,不同導電金屬層之間就會出現短路。另外,刻蝕工藝還應具有各向異性,那樣可保證將印刷圖案精確複製到基底上。


等離子刻蝕技術

20世紀70年代,微電子元器件產業開始采用等離子刻蝕技術。等離子體可將氣體分子離解或分解為化學活性組分,後者與基底的固體表麵發生反應,生成揮發性物質,然後被真空泵抽走。通常有四種材料必須進行刻蝕處理:矽(慘雜矽或非慘雜矽)、電介質(如SiO2或SiN)、金屬(通常為鋁、銅)以及光刻膠。每種材料的化學性質都各不相同。等離子體刻蝕為一種各向異性刻蝕工藝,可以確保刻蝕圖案的精確性、對特定材料的選擇性以及刻蝕效果的均勻性。等離子體刻蝕中,同時發生著基於等離子作用的物理刻蝕和基於活性基團作用的化學刻蝕。等離子體刻蝕工藝始於比較簡單的平板二極管技術,已經發展到時用價值數百萬美元的組合腔室,配備有多頻發生器、靜電吸盤、外部壁溫控製器以及針對特定薄膜專門設計得多種流程控製傳感器。


可進行刻蝕處理的電介質為二氧化矽和氮化矽。這兩種電介質的化學鍵鍵能很高,一般需采用由碳氟化合物氣體(如CF4、C4F8等)產生的高活性氟等離子體才能將其刻蝕。上述氣體所產生的等離子體化學性質極為複雜,往往會在基底表麵產生聚合物沉積,一般采用高能離子將上述沉積物去除。


                                Application of plasma cleaning machine in semiconductor etching process

     The first step in the production of integrated circuits is to transmit circuit patterns to the substrate through a mask. After UV exposure, the irradiated part of photosensitive polymer photoresist is removed by development. Once the circuit pattern is finalized on the photoresist, the pattern can be copied to the polysilicon and other texture substrate film through the etching process, so as to form the transistor gate circuit. At the same time, aluminum or copper are used to realize the interconnection between components, or silicon dioxide is used to block the interconnection path. The function of etching is to transfer the printing pattern to the substrate with high accuracy, so the etching process must selectively remove different films, and the etching of the substrate requires a high degree of selectivity. Otherwise, there will be short circuit between different conductive metal layers. In addition, the etching process should also be anisotropic, so as to ensure that the printed pattern can be accurately copied to the substrate.

    In 1970s, plasma etching technology was adopted in microelectronic components industry. Plasma can dissociate or decompose gas molecules into chemical active components, which react with the solid surface of the substrate to generate volatile substances, which are then pumped out by vacuum pump. There are usually four materials that must be etched: silicon (matte silicon or non matte silicon), dielectric (such as SiO2 or sin), metal (usually aluminum, copper), and photoresist. The chemical properties of each material are different. Plasma etching is an anisotropic etching process, which can ensure the accuracy of etching pattern, the selectivity of specific materials and the uniformity of etching effect. In plasma etching, physical etching based on plasma action and chemical etching based on active group action occur simultaneously. Plasma etching technology started with a relatively simple flat diode technology, and has developed into a multi million dollar combined chamber equipped with a multi frequency generator, an electrostatic suction cup, an external wall temperature controller and a variety of specially designed process control sensors for specific films.

    The dielectrics that can be etched are silicon dioxide and silicon nitride. The chemical bond energy of these two dielectrics is very high, which can be etched by high active fluorine plasma produced by fluorocarbon gas (such as CF4, C4F8, etc.). The chemical properties of the plasma produced by the above gases are very complex, and polymer deposition often occurs on the surface of the substrate. Generally, high-energy ions are used to remove the above-mentioned deposits.



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